Reconquest of Spain
The kingdom of Granada falls to the Christian forces of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella--as a result, the Moors lose their last foothold in Spain. In the 13th century, the Christian Reconquest forced Spanish Muslims to flee south, and Granada was established as the last Moorish refuge.
The kingdom flourished for the next 200 years, but in the late 15th century internal feuds and a strengthened Spanish monarchy signaled the end of nearly 800 years of Moorish civilization in Spain. On January 2, 1492, King Boabdil surrendered Granada, and in 1502 the Spanish crown ordered all Muslims converted to Christianity. In 1609, the last Moors still adhering to Islam were expelled from Spain.